# Logical Indexing

## Contents

# 6.3. Logical Indexing¶

## 6.3.1. Introduction to Logical indexing¶

As an alternative to indexing an array by `x[idx]`

where `idx`

is an array of integers, *logical indexing* allows for the syntax `x[choose]`

where `choose`

is an array of booleans. The size of `choose`

must be the length of the array (or more generally, the dimension it indexes into). Note that the result is identical to `x[findall(choose)]`

, but shorter to write and likely more efficient.

```
x = -11:11
y = sin.(x)
x = x[y .> 0] # Only keep values of x where y=sin x is positive
```

```
11-element Vector{Int64}:
-11
-10
-6
-5
-4
1
2
3
7
8
9
```

```
# Example: Consider the matrix
A = rand(-10:10, 3, 10)
```

```
3×10 Matrix{Int64}:
8 0 9 -3 4 4 4 3 -2 -2
-4 0 -5 10 9 -4 -3 -2 4 -8
-8 6 2 7 5 1 10 8 -9 4
```

```
# Compute a boolean array with `true` if the column sums are >=0
pick = sum(A, dims=1) .≥ 0
```

```
1×10 BitMatrix:
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
```

```
# Create a new vector with only the columns of A given by the `pick` variable
# Note that since `pick` is a 2D vector (row vector), we use [:] before indexing
B = A[:, pick[:]]
```

```
3×7 Matrix{Int64}:
0 9 -3 4 4 4 3
0 -5 10 9 -4 -3 -2
6 2 7 5 1 10 8
```

## 6.3.2. Examples: Simplifying the Sieve of Eratosthenes function¶

In our previous implementation, we used the code below to collect all the prime numbers:

```
...
# Return an array with all prime numbers
primes = Int64[]
for i = 2:n
if prime[i]
push!(primes, i)
end
end
primes
...
```

Using array comprehensions, we can replace this entire part of the code by a single line:

```
primes = [ i for i = 2:n if prime[i] ]
```

or even simpler, since the list of primes is simply the indices of the `true`

values in the array `prime`

, we can use the `findall`

function. However in our original implementation, `prime[1]`

was set to `true`

(since it was not used) so we have to first make sure the number 1 is not considered a prime. Then the code can be written as:

```
prime[1] = false
primes = findall(prime)
```

## 6.3.3. Example: Simplifying the dart-throwing function¶

We previously used the following code to count the number of “hits”, that is, how many points in the vectors `x`

,`y`

are inside the unit circle:

```
# Determine if points are inside the circle (a "hit")
hits = 0
for i = 1:n
if x[i]^2 + y[i]^2 ≤ 1
hits += 1
end
end
```

Using the `count`

function, this can be written as a single line of code:

```
hits = count(@. x^2 + y^2 ≤ 1)
```

## 6.3.4. Example: Simplifying the poker hand flush code¶

When simulating the poker hands, we used the following code to determine if all cards were of the same suit:

```
same_suit = true
for i = 2:5
if suits[i] ≠ suits[1]
same_suit = false
break
end
end
```

Using the `all`

function, this can be simplified to a single line of code:

```
same_suit = all(suits[2:5] .== suits[1])
```